Spend on research and development
This indicator measures Gross Expenditure on Research and Development (GERD) as a percentage of GDP. Find out more about this indicator.
Total research and development spending as a share of GDP was estimated at 1.66% for Scotland in 2019, the same share as in 2018.
Over the longer term spending on research and development has increased, from an estimated 1.24% of GDP in 2007 to 1.66% of GDP in 2019. The increase in spending since 2007 has been driven by a rise in Business Enterprise R&D (BERD) expenditure.
In 2019, the sector with the highest spending on research and development was the business enterprise sector (representing 0.84% of GDP), followed by the higher education sector (0.69% of GDP), government (0.11% of GDP) and private non-profit organisations (0.03% of GDP)
This indicator can be broken down by sector, and can be viewed on the Equality Evidence Finder.
We have put a pause on the updating of the ‘Spend on Research and Development (R&D)’ national indicator until more work can be carried out to quality assure the underlying source data.
This national indicator measures Scotland’s Gross Expenditure on Research and Development (GERD) as a percentage of Gross Domestic Product (GDP). GERD as a share of GDP is taken from the annual Scottish Government (SG) GERD publication. GERD includes R&D undertaken by business enterprise (BERD). The Office for National Statistics (ONS) has been leading a redevelopment project for R&D statistics. The first phase of the project concluded with the publication of the latest ONS Business Enterprise R&D (BERD) estimates, which reflect significant methodological changes. There is currently uncertainty over the robustness of the detailed breakdowns of the new BERD estimates, which includes the data for Scotland. The ONS have put a temporary pause on the National Statistics status of the detailed breakdowns of BERD until the second stage of the redevelopment project completes in 2023. The National Statistics status of the Scottish Government (SG) GERD publication has similarly been put on pause. More detail is available at: https://www.gov.scot/publications/gross-expenditure-on-research-and-development-scotland-2020/